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            Exegesis International’s primary goal is to make various resources available that will aid those desiring to study the Bible deeply and effectively. Such tools are offered in the Biblical Text section of the website, which includes translations of various books and texts of the Bible, definitions of Hebrew and Greek vocabulary words, and Exegetical Digests and Insights. Available in the Resources section are Papers and published Articles, plus Class Notes written by various teachers.


            Several disciplines related to the Biblical Text also have great value, complementing the study of the Bible itself. One such discipline is Textual Criticism, which seeks to establish the original readings on the autographs (inspired original writings of the biblical authors), since surviving Greek and Hebrew manuscripts occasionally disagree with each other in how the text is worded. A second discipline is Biblical History, which primarily focuses on the Ancient Near East (ANE) as the context of Israel’s plight in antiquity, and thus on Israel’s neighbors with whom they interacted, such as Egypt (making Egyptology useful to study). Included in this discipline, and also worthy of in-depth study, is Biblical geography and archaeology, whose focus is on the places where the events of the Bible transpired and the explanation of the significance of the remains that these ancient peoples left behind in those places.

PURPOSE PDF Print E-mail

            Welcome to Exegesis International! This website is designed to provide valuable resources and materials related to the exegesis of the Bible, which is the world’s singularly true and revelatory written account of God to mankind. He did this for at least 3 reasons: 1) to teach mankind about Himself and all that He created; 2) to offer mankind the opportunity to enter into a right relationship with Him, which leads into eternity; and 3) to enable mankind to live successfully and wisely in this world, which exists under a curse because of the sin that man committed against God and against himself.


            The purpose of Exegesis International is to be a tool to bring greater clarity to the teachings and meaning of the Bible and the fields related to its study. Any proper understanding of the Bible is based on the application of sound hermeneutical principles, which are the rules for playing the game. If one plays a game by the rules, he plays the game fairly and has a chance to win; the same is true for interpreting the Bible correctly. The best hermeneutical approach to studying the Bible is the grammatical-historical method of interpretation. With this method, a detailed study of the grammatical, lexical, and syntactical elements of a given passage is made, in addition to a background study of the historical environment surrounding the passage and the entire book of which it is a part. What is included on the website?

Late-Bronze-I to Late-Bronze-II Occupational Gap at Hazor (Area M) PDF Print E-mail

       The pictures below reveal the occupational gap between Late-Bronze-II/III and Late-Bronze-I Hazor, which demonstrates the large gap in time between the two periods. This archaeological reality argues against a “destruction” by Thutmose III (ca. 1506–1452 BC) and in favor of a destruction by conflagration at the hands of the Israelites during their northern campaign in Canaan under Joshua in ca. 1400 BC. See Douglas Petrovich’s article, “The Dating of Hazor’s Destruction in Joshua 11 via Biblical, Archaeological, & Epigraphical Evidence,” for more details. In some places, the occupational gap measures up to 1½ m from the round-stoned pavement of the later Late-Bronze-IIB/III city, down to the top of the burnline of the earlier Late-Bronze-I city. The photos are viewed from left to right, with corresponding captions provided underneath. Click on an image to see a larger view of it. All pictures were taken in 2007.


LB-I Burnline at Hazor (Area M) PDF Print E-mail

            The pictures below reveal the burnline for Late-Bronze-I (1550-1400 BC) Hazor, which must have been destroyed by the Israelites during the northern campaign under Joshua in ca. 1400 BC, since he “burned Hazor with fire” (Josh 11:11) and since only this scenario synchronizes with Biblical chronology. The LB-I burnline measures up to ½ m in some places here in Area M, which is located on the northern slope of the upper city (tel). Hazor’s chief excavator, Amnon Ben-Tor, says that this “phase ended in a conflagration, similar to the one that brought an end to the later phase,” meaning the end of the Late Bronze IIB/III city (ca. 1234 BC), which often is wrongly understood as the Hazor destroyed by Joshua. See Douglas Petrovich’s article, “The Dating of Hazor’s Destruction in Joshua 11 via Biblical, Archaeological, & Epigraphical Evidence,” for more details. The photos are viewed from left to right and from above to below, with corresponding captions provided underneath. Click on an image to see a larger view of it. All pictures were taken in 2007.


            PHOTO #1: This view principally features two different eras in Hazor’s history: the city of Late Bronze IIB/III (1300-1200 BC), and that of Late Bronze I, which preceded it. The LB-IIB/III stoned pavement immediately atop the deep layer of dirt (actually the occupational gap) represents the final LB city’s ground level, and this pavement was part of a courtyard that surrounded a Canaanite temple through which residents and visitors of Hazor entered the upper city. Below the occupational gap is a red oval encircling the burnline of LB I. This burnline attests to the Israelite destruction of Hazor under Joshua in ca. 1400 BC. Hazor was not inhabited by the Israelites next, after this destruction, but by another Canaanite population.

            PHOTO #2: This picture features a cutout of several periods. Moving chronologically from most ancient to most recent, at bottom is the LB-I burnline, with the occupational gap above it. The small and finely arranged stones above the gap are part of the LB-IIB/III pavement. The larger stones above the pavement are part of a wall from the early Iron Age, while the stones at the top of the picture are from the later Iron Age city, which was destroyed by the Assyrian king, Tiglath-Pileser III, in 732 BC.

            PHOTO #3: This picture offers a worm’s-eye view of the occupational gap between LB IIB/III and LB I, along with the LB-I burnline below, which again is encircled with a red oval.

            PHOTO #4: This closeup shot of the LB-I to LB-II transition reveals some charred remains that were exposed during the 2001 excavations in Area M, and were still visible when this picture was taken in 2007.

            PHOTO #5: This photo is similar to the previous one, though this time a red circle displays the charred remains of the LB-I destruction by conflagration (a mass burning by fire).

            PHOTO #6: This picture displays a stone wall in use during LB I, along with several spots of conspicuous, black ashes that are outlined by red circles.

            PHOTO #7: This photo is a closeup of one of the larger of the spots of conspicuous, black ashes that were described in the previous photo.

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